The less dense breast tissue in older women increases the sensitivity and specificity of mammography especially in demonstrating the margins of the tumour. LCIS has no microcalcification and therefore may not be detected early. This would influence the choice of surgery as to whether breast conserving or mastectomy is appropriate [ 226 ]. The patient is then able to participate in the choice of treatment. Various pathological measurements influence prognosis, either individually or in combination.
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Breast Cancer Detection and Screening
Screening is the search for unsuspected disease in a population of apparently healthy people. Fine needle aspiration FNA is also useful in revealing the consistency of the lump, the gritty feel of carcinoma or the fluctuant nature of a cyst. Breast conserving operations and adjuvant systemic therapy have enhanced the acceptability and effectiveness of the treatment offered to screening detected cancers [ 50 ]. However, the nodal status and size frequently change when the pathological measurements are given and there is thus little conformity as to which groups of patients are being compared.
Comic marvin strip, either by imaging or by reexamination at a different time of the menstrual cycle, is advised. The superior part of the breast drains to the infraclavicular and supraclavicular nodes and thence to the deep cervical node Figure 2. Commode DCIS is associated with micro-invasive foci and lymph node metastases. Therefore although halo breast cancer screening las vegas TNM staging system is still widely used, of more importance is the full pathological description which allows patients to be compared in a meaningful manner. Following clinical diagnosis and assessment of the lump and the patient for signs of metastatic spread a simple attempt is made at clinically staging the tumour according to the tumour sizeaxillary node mobility, fixitymetastases distant metastases TNM system [ 15 ].