The biological findings with males generally converge with the self-report and observational research. Self-Report and Observational Findings The central tenet of the Involuntary Defeat Strategy theory is supported by several studies suggesting that individuals with depression experience a subjective sense of subordination see Table phycology of domination. Psychodynamic and social psychology models of narcissistic personality disorder have both emphasized that the pursuit of dominance functions to protect self-esteem: Total testosterone, androgen receptor polymorphism, and depressive symptoms in young black and white men:
Within this framework, social attention is interpreted as an indicator of inclusion Gilbert, , and angry responses, while posing a threat to power, may nonetheless be seen as conferring attention, which is preferable to ostracism. Observational Measures Observational studies have assessed dominance motivation and behavior in children and adults within institutional and laboratory settings. Kemper , for example, has defined status as the ability to achieve one's goals with voluntary compliance from others.
Few clinical researchers have considered the ways in which dominance motivation or elevated self-perceptions of power might develop see Andrews, ; Gilbert et al. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. In the present paper, we will use three distinct terms to refer to the components of the DBS:
Dominance motivation is one of the personality traits used to screen for narcissistic tendencies. Lower serum DHEAS levels are associated with a higher degree of physical disability and depressive symptoms in middle-aged to older African American women. Winter described individuals who wanted to feel as though they were most powerful.
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Personality and Individual Differences. Summary of the DBS Findings Regarding Mania Even during well periods, people diagnosed with bipolar disorder and those at risk for the disorder endorse high levels of dominance motivation and self-perceived power.